Static routing is a form of routing that occurs when a router uses a manually-configured routing entry, rather than information from dynamic routing traffic. In many cases, static routes are manually configured by a network administrator by adding entries into a routing table, though this may not always be the case. Unlike dynamic routing, static routes are fixed and do not change if the network is changed or reconfigured. Static routing and dynamic routing are not mutually exclusive. Both dynamic routing and static routing are usually used on a router to maximize routing efficiency and to provide backups in the event that dynamic routing information fails to be exchanged. Static routing can also be used in stub networks, or to provide a gateway of last resort.
Static routing may have the following uses:
- Static routing can be used to define an exit point from a router when no other routes are available or necessary. This is called a default route.
- Static routing can be used for small networks that require only one or two routes. This is often more efficient since a link is not being wasted by exchanging dynamic routing information.
- Static routing is often used as a complement to dynamic routing to provide a failsafe backup in the event that a dynamic route is unavailable.
- Static routing is often used to help transfer routing information from one routing protocol to another (routing redistribution).
Dynamic routing, also called adaptive routing, is a process where a router can forward data via a different route or given destination based on the current conditions of the communication circuits within a system. The term is most commonly associated with data networking to describe the capability of a network to ‘route around’ damage, such as loss of a node or a connection between nodes, so long as other path choices are available. Dynamic routing allows as many routes as possible to remain valid in response to the change.
Systems that do not implement dynamic routing are described as using static routing, where routes through a network are described by fixed paths. RansNet Appliances supports Dynamic Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), which is a standard dynamic routing protocol and can interoperate with 3rd-party devices as well
The RansNet Gateway Routing UI facilitates users to configure Static Route and Dynamic OSPF Route based on your topology.
Static Route – Is a process in which we have to manually add routes in the routing table.
Dynamic Route – Automatic adjust the routes according to the current state in the routing table. Dynamic routing uses protocols to discover network destinations and the routes to reach it.
User can configure a static route by clicking on ‘ tab > Routing ‘ menu and click on button, Refer to Image 2 .
The fields of the Static Routes List are explained below:
|01.||IPv4/6 Route Destination (Network/Prefix)||The destination route is a manually-configured route entry that determines the next routing hop based on the destination IP address.|
|02.||IPv4/6 Nexthop IP/Interface||A next-hop IP is the IP address of an adjacent router or device|
|03.||Other Options||IPv4 Administrative Distance – This value is used in routers to rank routes from most preferred (low AD value) to least preferred (high AD value).|
IPv4 Track Host /Interval – The track-host is used to check the availability of an IP(Internet)
IPv4 Static Route Description – This is to add a note to the route for reference.
New Static Route Interface
To create a new static route, click on the button as in Image 1.
Settings of Static Route
The New/Edit Static Route UI has two Destination Options, namely ‘Default Gateway‘ and ‘Network/Netmask‘.
|Default Gateway||This option has 1 required field:|
01. Default Gateway IP: The Nexthop IP address.
|Network/Netmask||This option has 2 required and 2 optional fields:|
01. Route Destination: The next routing hop is based on the destination IP address
02. Nexthop: Next hop is the next gateway interface to which packets should be forwarded.
03. Administrative Distance (Optional): The value of the distance of the router (Selects the best path when there are two or more different routes to the same destination) Administrative distance defines the reliability of a routing
04. Remarks (Optional): User’s input as a caption
See Policy-Based Routing (PBR) link
User can configure PBR in the Policy-Based Routes section of the Routing UI to configure details.
The “track-host” option is typically used for determining the primary Static route or PBR route, by pinging the tracked host IP in a configurable tracking interval. Typically the tracked host is an upstream IP address (eg. ISP router IP or a known stable Internet IP, eg: 22.214.171.124).
If the tracking fails, it means upstream is unreachable via this path, the router will remove this route, so that it will failover to a secondary route (eg. backup connection). Once the tracking succeeds again, it will add back the route so the connection will fall back to the primary route.
! ip route 0.0.0.0/0 nexthop 10.30.8.1 track-host 126.96.36.199 3 max 50 10 preempt-delay 300 backup wwan0 ip route 0.0.0.0/0 nexthop wwan0 distance 200 track-host 188.8.131.52 60 max 200 50 !
Using the above config as an example:
- The default primary path is via 10.30.8.1 (fixed line), and it tracks 184.108.40.206 at 3s interval, with maximum allowable latency of 50ms at 10% packet loss.
- The default secondary patch is via wwan0 (4G), which is configured with a higher admin distance (200), and it tracks 220.127.116.11 at 60s intervals, with maximum allowable latency of 200ms at 50% packet loss therefore it’s less preferred (backup) when the primary is active.
- If tracking to 18.104.22.168 fails or latency is higher than the 50ms or packet loss is more than 10% (either due to cable failure or upstream link quality issues), whichever condition triggers first, the router will withdraw the primary route and the backup route will become active, eg. all connection will failover to 4G; if tracking to 22.214.171.124 succeeds/recovers, it will add back the primary route and traffic will fall back to the primary path again (via 10.30.8.1).
- The “preempt delay” timer is an optional setting to delay fallback, eg. waits for up to the configured timer (in seconds) before it adds back the primary route, to prevent flapping situations for the primary path. Note this timer will count from the latest recovery. eg. if tracking fails again within the delay timer window, the fallback will happen from the last recovery.
- The “backup” is another optional setting to prevent undesirable failover, When a WAN/primary failover connection is met (eg. WAN link failure, or especially high latency on WAN), we want to make sure the 4G/5G connection is stable before failing over to 4G. The objective is to avoid failing over to another bad backup connection when the primary is degraded but still usable.
Stable fallback scenario: (fail…recover) + 5 mins –> fallback to primary
Flapping fallback scenario (x is less than 5 mins): (fail…recover) + 2 mins + (fail….recover) + x mins + (fail_n….recover_n) + 5 mins —> fallback to primary
Dynamic routing makes automatic adjustments of the routes in the routing table. Dynamic routing uses protocols to discover network destinations and the routes to reach them. RansNet Appliances supports Dynamic Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), which is a standard dynamic routing protocol and can interoperate with 3rd-party devices as well.
User can Enable Dynamic Routing (OSPF) by sliding the button from the section head of the Routing UI to configure details.
Settings of Dynamic Routing (OSPF)
The parameters to configure Dynamic Routing (OSPF) are explained below:
|01.||Routing OSPF||Select the OSPF option from the list|
Network: Defines a Network IP address on which OSPF runs for that Network.
Router ID: This option is used to provide a unique identity to the OSPF Router. OSPF Router ID is assigned to each router running the OSPF protocol.
|02.||Network ID/Area||Need to specify the Network IP and Wild card Mask|
|03.||Enable/Disable Parameters||Redistribute BGP Routes option can be Enabled or Disabled:|
If Enabled the redistributes routes learned from another routing process into OSPF.